Introduction

8. How to Disprove Evolution

The following is a list of species characteristics which should not occur, according to evolution theory. The fact that we can generate this list at all is an illustration of how evolution theory is a scientific theory, and creationism is not. Ask a creationist for specific predictions and a list of characteristics which should not occur and you'll get nothing but a blank expression, because their ideology has been constructed in such a manner that no conceivable evidence could possibly disprove it. But evolution can readily provide such a list:

  1. A complex organ for which no simpler versions ever existed. In the 19th century, creationists tried and failed to use the human eye as an example of such an organ. Since then, they have used progressively smaller and simpler examples of what they believe to be "irreducibly complex" organs, until they are now literally talking about microscopic sub-cellular structures smaller than a single cell (such as the bacterial flagellum cited by Dr. Michael Behe, for which we have, predictably enough, found even simpler versions). Ironically, this long creationist progression from complex to simple illustrates Darwin's point beautifully.
  2. A feature which exists solely for the benefit of another species, with no benefit whatsoever to the host species. Every attempt to find an example of such a feature has invariably resulted in the discovery of some form of either symbiosis, where both species benefit in some way, or parasitism, where an organism feeds from its host but the host has not developed any features specifically to assist with this process.
  3. Different biochemistry (eg- different base nucleotides) than the rest of the biosystem. Note: a lifeform which evolved in a highly isolated environment (such as an extra-terrestrial lifeform) might meet this criterion without violating evolution. But in our biosystem, every organism evolved from the same nucleic acids that were found in the first life form, so we all share those acids in our biochemical makeup.
  4. A feature which leaps from one branch of the evolutionary tree to another. For example, mammals evolved from the mammal-like reptile therapsids over 200 million years ago. If a feature which developed in mammals only 10 million years ago suddenly appeared fully-formed in a reptile from the same period with no reptilian antecedent, this would be an example of a feature jumping from one branch of the evolutionary tree to another. This is quite normal in man-made systems. For example, fuel injection started in race cars and slowly developed from primitive mechanically metered injectors to sophisticated computer-controlled fuel-injection systems. But when the Ford Crown Victoria switched from carburetors to fuel injection, it did not follow this slow progression; computer-controlled fuel injection systems simply appeared in the product line one year, having jumped there from other product lines where all of this development had occurred.

    We have never found even a single example of such a "branch-jumping" event anywhere in the millions of species of the animal kingdom. Features slowly develop within their branch of origin, and advanced versions do not suddenly appear in other branches. Sub-cellular parasites can transfer genetic material between organisms on occasion (in fact, we have "parasitic" mitichondrial DNA in our own bodies, which only further establishes the pathways of evolutionary transmission), but the kind of advanced feature migration which is common in man-made systems is completely absent from the animal kingdom.

Despite having catalogued animal species for centuries, we have never found even one that meets any of these criteria. This is what evolution science means when its proponents say that it has been proven "beyond a reasonable doubt." Surely, if we were created or "intelligently designed" rather than evolved, we would have found at least one example, somewhere in our vast animal kingdom. In fact, we should have found thousands. Especially #4, which virtually screams for explanation if we did not evolve, and which creationists conspicuously avoid ever mentioning.


Continue to 9. The "God of the Gaps"

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